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This book focuses on different problems arising in one dimensional ground water movement in homogeneous porous media. In the problem of Ground water infiltration phenomenon in horizontal direction, the non linear Boussinesq’s equation for height of water table on the basis of hydraulic theory has been derived and perturb solution is obtained to determine effective height of the water table as a measure of initial storage capacity of a basin. The problem of Ground water recharge in unsaturated porous media in vertical downward direction has been studied with the aim to find moisture content of soil at any depth z for any time t > 0. The non-linear Fokker-Planck equation has been derived to represent phenomenon of ground water recharge and reduced to Abel’s equation of the second kind by using similarity transformation. The solution has been obtained in terms of transcendental function.
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The subject of this book is to apply the analytic semigroup theory to solve various kinds of fourth order problems. In Chapter 2, we study the Cauchy problem for the surface diffusion flow and the Willmore flow in one dimensional case. In particular, we focus our attention to relax the regularity assumption on the initial curve. In Chapter 3, we extend the results of Chapter 2 for multi-dimensional case of various kinds of fourth order parabolic equations via maximal regularity. In the last Chapter, we consider the self-similar solution for the surface diffusion flow with boundary conditions.
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Groundwater is a precious natural resource of limited extent. In order to ensure its judicious use,proper evaluation is required. Evaluation of groundwater involves several factors of which,Groundwater flow and recharge is paramount. Modeling of flow system and quantification of the recharge rate is a prerequisite for efficient and sustainable management of groundwater. This book is mainly concerned with estimation of spatially distributed natural recharge using WetSpass model and modeling groundwater flow system of Wukro basin, Northern Ethiopia.
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The contents and description in this book include the use and application of Mathematical and Statistical Modeling. The basic principles of flow (Darcy's Law and Mass Balance Equation) are used in describing basic flow of groundwater. It has been also shown that, how mathematical methods (FEM) integrated with newly advanced computer software tools (GMSH and FEniCS) are used for simulation of groundwater flow study. The mathematical methods (FEM) are used in analyzing real problems (Characteristics’ of hydraulic head in groundwater flow) with the help of computer aided programs. Simulation tool is finally developed and tested in different conditions for a specific water site system.
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Practical engineering problems in heat transfer and fluid flow involve one or more governing equations, together with some boundary conditions over the domain. The restoration of boundary condition in two-dimensional steady heat conduction problems is described using BEM. Boundary Integral Equation is derived from a combination of Laplace Equation, Divergence Theorem, Green’s Identities, Dirac Delta and Heaviside functions.In the formulation, the boundary conditions are represented by linear relation between the temperature and heat flux. The temperature inside the solution domain of diesel engine, together with the space of environment surrounding the heat conduction, is found from addition boundary temperature and fluxes. The BEM implementation is performed using FORTRAN 77 software. To validate the technique, solution to two non-linear problems are presented and space dependence results are in agreement with the computed analytical solutions.
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This book provides a simple and easy apporoach for those who are intended to work or conduct study on groundwater potential and understanding of the flow behavior which is important for proper management of groundwater resources. This work deals with groundwater potential assessment and numerical flow modeling for estimating the recharge, assessing the groundwater balance and understanding the groundwater flow behavior. In addition, the book demonstrates modeling approach and application of mathematical models. In this book the used model is PMWIN Pro (Modflow), which is proved to be a very useful tool for the investigation of the hydrogeological characteristics, the interaction between river and aquifers, and the water budget of the catchment. Finally, the author suggests that groundwater flow modeling can be a useful technique for planning the production of water supply wells in aquifers.
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The Quasi-one-dimensional flow: An Introduction grew out of Masters Project by the same title first presented in 2005 and repeated with modifications for publication in peer referred Journal of Mathematical theory and Modeling. The objective is to present the subject of Quasi-one-dimensional flow to an audience unfamiliar with all but the most basic numerical techniques and to do so in such a way that it would become clear to everyone. This “The Quasi-one-dimensional flow” book is truly a handbook for beginners. The book is divided into two parts. The author lays out the subject in Part I by first defining the terms, Next, he describes the theoretical foundations of the fluid flows. This includes the governing equations of fluid dynamics, concentrating on their mathematical properties which contain the keys to the choice of the numerical approach and finally the Method of discretizing the equations is discussed and transformation techniques and grids are presented. Part II is devoted to application example material. It provides insight into the steps needed to obtain a numerical solution of a flow field using the Finite difference technique and the Mac Cormack’s Method.
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Subsurface dams are basically groundwater conservation structures and are effective to provide sustainable groundwater by arresting subsurface flow. A groundwater dam is constructed across stream which retards the natural groundwater flow of the system and stores water below ground surface to meet the demands during the period of scarcity. Groundwater is commonly available resources and the only permanent and safe source of water. The development of the groundwater basin and the concept of storing water in subsurface is an attractive alternate solution to the water shortage problems in arid areas. The capital cost for this kind of structure is relatively low.Shedi soil available in lateritic formation is investigated for considering, it as an alternative material for SSB. Composite soil is prepared by addition of clay to shedi soil at different proportions. Large scale hydraulic conductivity tests are carried out to determine optimal clay content for preparing composite soil. Large scale Hydraulic conductivity tests are also done by varying the thickness of SSB’s. The suitability of different materials such as clay with river sand need to be investigated as an alternative material.
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In present book are represented obtained by authors results of investigations of various unsteady problems of waves propagation in different media. In Introduction there are described obtained solutions of problems for three dimensional linear and nonlinear waves, including investigations of diffraction nonlinear problems, caustics, nonlinear quasi-monochromatic waves, narrow nonlinear gaussian beams, various unsteady mixed boundary value problems of elasticity, solved by Wiener-Hopf technique and derivation of solution in Smirnov-Sobolev form, exact 3D method of determination of frequencies of vibrations of magneto-elastic and piezo-electric plates and shells by derivation of transcendent equations and their numerical solution, as well as, in solution of problems of investigation of probabilities and prognosis for stochastic processes in various branches of science.
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The book "Mathematical Modelling of Subsurface Seepage Flow over Sloping Beds" focuses on development of analytic techniques for estimation of surface-groundwater interactions in sloping aquifers under seepage and recharge conditions. Each chapter of the book deals with real world surface-groundwater interaction problems whose solutions are important for hydrologists, water resources managers and environmental engineers. With simple mathematical approach, the author demonstrates formulation of several archetypal stream-aquifer problems with stationary or moving boundary conditions, and illustrates the results with numerical examples. Mathematical models and analytic solutions developed in this book provide a holistic view of flow dynamics in stream-aquifer system. Closed form expressions derived in the book can serve as test cases for numerical models and guidelines for experimental studies.
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The implementation of the numerical analysis for any flow problem required good knowledge of the physical boundary associated with the case to be studied. This knowledge will help to simplifying the numerical analysis in order to solve the problem approximately as a real case. Numerical grid generation has now become a fairly common tool for use in the numerical solution of partial differential equations on arbitrary shaped regions. This is especially true in computational fluid dynamics, from which came much of the impetus for the development of this technique. But the procedures are equally applicable to all physical problems in flow field solution. The role of numerical simulation in engineering is so vital that it has been accepted as an emerging subject which has its own standing based on analytical and experimental knowledge of the engineering disciplines concerned and numerical analysis. The objective of this book is prediction of the physical properties of the flow field along the distance of the convergent–divergent nozzle for one–dimensional flow with and without existing normal shock by using analytical solution and by solving the time dependent Euler governing equation.
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This book contains some aspects of flow shop scheduling problems including sequence dependent set up time with minimization of multi-criteria fitness function.There are different criteria's which have to be optimized for the customer and industrial requirement. The present work dealt with multi-criteria fitness function which includes weighted sum of total weighted squared tardiness, Makespan, Total weighted earliness and number of tardy jobs.Multi-criteria fitness function is very difficult to be optimised as there is tradeoff between different criteria. Metaheuristic like genetic algorithm and simulated annealing is a powerful techniques for the solution of such type of scheduling problems. Hybridization of different metaheuristic such as Genetic algorithm and simulated annealing has also been proposed for such type of scheduling problems. These metaheuristics tested proves to be powerful methods for solution to these type of NP hard problems in a reasonable time.
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AEM is an important addition to ground water modeling technique based on superposition of analytic elements. This method employs superposition of analytic functions to create an approximate solution to the ground-water flow problem. In AEM each of analytic element represents different flow feature of the aquifer. AEM model is applied to calculate groundwater head for homogeneous and heterogeneous steady flow condition for synthetic problems. Results are validated with available analytical solution and finite element method. Sensitivity analysis is carried out by varying parameter of aquifer and amount of discretisation of element. Later AEM model is also applied for unsteady well drawdown problem. The radial collector well comprises of horizontally placed screen pipes or laterals in riverbed aquifer. The complete structure behaves like a well with large effective radius. Radial collector wells offer a feasible and sustainable pumping arrangement to augment induced recharge. The use of radial collector well structures has been growing in various parts of the world. Simulation of a synthetic RC well by FEM is covered in the book.
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Because of simplicity and reasonable results that can be obtained by one dimensional solution, the use of these predictions are increasing. In this research, one dimensional solution for sediment transport phenomenon by finite volume method is proposed. Depending to the sensitivity of the solution, sediment transport equations solved by implicit and explicit schemes. Furthermore, kinematic and dynamic wave models were used in the one dimensional unsteady sediment transport. Moreover, equilibrium and non-equilibrium cases were taken into consideration. Meanwhile, explicit and implicit approaches were introduced. Finally, the numerical results were compared with the experimental findings.
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The Method of Lines (MOL) has been one of the simplest but effective technique for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) in which all but one dimension is discretized. This work describes numerical solution of 1-dimensional Schrodinger equation using the method of lines approach (MOL) where spatial dimensions were discretized using some finite difference approximation leaving the time dimension to be the only independent variable in the resulting system of initial value problems. The effect of changing the discretization size on the accuracy of the solution procedure versus changing the step size in the integration of the resulting differential equation was also studied with the incorporation of Simpson’s rule function in MATLAB.
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The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is one of the major geological structures of the African plate and continent and is known as the second most important geological curiosity in Africa after the East-African-Rift system. This book focuses on the use of hydrochemistry, multivariate statistics and environmental tracers (18O, 2H, 3H and CFCs) to establish the origin, geochemical evolution, usability and groundwater flow system of groundwater resources of two agro-industrial areas of the CVL (Banana Plain and Mount Cameroon area). The findings of this book are important in that they contribute in the identification of groundwater quality evolution and flow dynamics in these two important agro-industrial areas thereby contributing to the sustainable management of their groundwater resources. Of particular interest is the vulnerability of the shallow aquifers to nitrate contamination to anthropogenic activities in the Banana Plain. In the Mount Cameroon area, the conceptualization of the flow system and the occurrence of different recharge elevations will play a role in finding proper sites for future groundwater development and catchment area protection.
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Belgaum is one of the major cities in Karnataka. Considering the significance of water quality in water resource management, water quality studies are carried out in Belgaum city, where the scarcity of portable water is major problem, due to the population growth and urbanization. In spite of various measures taken by the authorities for the sustainable source of water supply to city; it is still not achieved due to one or other reasons. Water supplies from Hidakal reservoir, Rakkaskoppa reservoir and marginal development of groundwater have been takes place to meet the excess demand. Improper planning and management of water resources may end up with problems not only related with quantity, but also it may lead to quality problems. It is fact that City Corporation does not have proper sewage treatment plant and drainage network, which causes some of water quality problems in certain parts of the city area. Therefore, to understand hydrochemical behavior, 25 samples were collected and analyzed and followed by standard method. Study revealed the flow of municipal and industrial effluent in unlined drains deteriorates the groundwater quality.
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Integrated approach has been used to investigate the hydrogeological framework of a complex fractured volcanic aquifer system in the Upper Awash river basin located at the western shoulder of the Ethiopian rift. The groundwater flow system and mechanism of recharge of different aquifers have been studied using conventional hydrogeological field investigations, hydrochemistry, isotope hydrology and numerical groundwater flow modeling techniques.
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In this book, I discussed Dimensional Analysis, Reyleigh’s method of Dimensionless, Bucingham ? – theorem, Physical Importance of some non dimensional number, effect of Skin-friction coefficient, Plate couple stress and Nusselt number, Method of numerical solution (Nachtsheim-Swigert (1965) iteration technique), Effect of parameters (Magnetic Field Parameter, vortex viscosity parameter, the micro-inertia density parameter, the buoyancy parameter, the Prandtl number, the non dimensional heat generation parameter, etcetera.
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This book provides various models used for the estimation of aquifer parameters.This book will be helpful to groundwater researcher for identifying artificial recharge sites and give necessary information for quantitative groundwater studies.This book also helpful for students and researchers for estimation of aquifer parameters for the groundwater management studies.This book will be useful for the groundwater flow modelling studies.
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Nowadays traffic flow and congestion is one of the main societal and economical problems related to transportation in industrialized countries. Traffic congestion is one of the greatest problems in Bangladesh also. Our aim is to understand and develop an optimal road network with efficient movement of traffic and minimal traffic congestion problems, accidents and pollutions etc. This book therefore considers the macroscopic traffic flow model known as LWR model ,appended with a closure linear velocity-density relationship which provides a first order hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE) and is treated as an initial boundary value problem (IBVP).we present the analytic solution of the traffic flow model as a Cauchy problem. The existence and uniqueness of the traffic flow model is also presented here.A numerical simulation of the traffic flow model (IBVP) is performed based on a finite difference scheme for the model with a suitable numerical scheme of the IBVP for this is the Lax-Friedrichs scheme and establish well-posedness and stability condition for the scheme. We implement the numerical scheme by computer programming language.
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Road salting, like any other activity that could significantly disturb the groundwater, has the potential to adversely affect the quality of groundwater within the vicinity of the road salt operations. Contamination of groundwater has been growing incessantly particularly due to road salt applications. Once the groundwater system gets contaminated, cleaning and redemption is costly. This study provides the current state-of-the-art knowledge on interactions between road salting and the environment. This will include the sources of chloride and its effects on the soil, vegetation, and shallow groundwater. In particular, this study analyzes the transport and transport processes related to propagation of chloride from road salt into adjacent groundwater resources. This work also presents the development of a conceptual, mathematical and numerical model of groundwater flow and solute transport by employing software packages, in particular GMS (Groundwater Modelling System).
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The Minimum Convex-Cost Network Flow Problems (MC-CNFP) is a class of network flow problem, with nonlinear (convex) cost function, has an important role in operations research. The convexity of the cost (or objective) function arise in various ways such as strictly convex, mixed linear and strictly convex, piece-wise linear convex, pseudo-convex etc. A number of solution methods developed in the last few decades on the view of different type convexity of cost function. In this dissertation we have present a ‘Proposed Solution Algorithm’ for MC-CNFP, which can deals with convex cost function. This solution algorithm is constructed on the basis of ‘Network Simplex Method’ for minimum cost network flow problem with linear cost function, ‘Zangwill’s Convex Simplex Method’ (Zangwill I. W., 1967) and it’s extension for quadratic programming problem (Swarup K., 1977) and the decomposition of the convex simplex method for large scale convex programming problems (Hsia W. S., 1973, 1974, 1975) and Non-Linear Transportation Problems (Terefe K., 2007).
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Geological models for monitoring groundwater quantity are an essential component of groundwater investigations as well as for rural/urban groundwater management.This study and research work presents geographical environment that will enable the visual analysis of groundwater boreholes, aquifers, and pre and post monsoon water levels in the Sabarkatha region. The study area is the irrigation region in Gujarat, India. The primary aim for this research is to develop a 3-dimensional geo-referenced groundwater model for water quantity management which integrates a groundwater modelling system and GIS.
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Pollution and scarcity of groundwater becomes one of the most common environmental problems in countries the Mediterranean region Natural and anthropogenic factors have impacts on the deterioration of the quality and quantity of groundwater. For determination the situation of groundwater (quantity and suitability) for domestic use, the geological and hydrogeo-logical characteristics had been investigated (Cl concentration in the pumped water and water level maps have been drawn and their relationship with distribution of abstraction rates for pumping wells. Rainfall distribution maps and aquifer lithological cross sections had been drawn also to determine their roles on the groundwater situation. Long term of ground water exploitation, climate change combined with decreasing quantity of rainfall and in addition to the aquifer lithological structure. All these factors are playing very important roles in the groundwater deterioration around the world.
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The synthesis problem solves a task of creating antennas with a high performance. One can use two methods. The first method is the creation of new antennas on a basis of new ideas, new materials and new technological opportunities. As an example of new antennas one can call volume (three-dimensional) self-complementary antennas. They are structures of electric and magnetic radiators, placed on cylindrical, conical and parabolic surfaces of revolution. Another method of solving the inverse problem is determining parameters, providing optimum electrical characteristics of known antennas. Thus, an inclusion of concentrated loads along a linear radiator allows achieving a variety of aims: creation of a wide-range radiation, creation of a given current distribution, reduction of superstructures impact on radiation patterns, etc. A method of mathematical programming is of important significance in numerical solution of these problems.
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One-dimensional and multi-dimensional linear regression sequences, sequences of partial sums, and series whose terms are elements of regression sequences appear as mathematical models in different fields of modern science. Their various applications in physics, economics, biology, cybernetics, actuary and financial mathematics motivate further study of the topic. In this book, we study the asymptotic behaviour of sequences of sums whose terms are elements of one-dimensional and multi-dimensional linear regressions with independent and symmetric noise. In particular, a great attention is paid to conditions which provide the almost sure convergence of series with regression terms. These problems are considered in both finite-dimensional and separable Banach spaces. This book is a result of joint successful work by Dr. Prof. V. Buldygin and Dr. M. Runovska.
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This research work investigates a feasibility study on the impact of artificial recharge from a planned wastewater treatment plant on the groundwater quantity and quality of the coastal aquifer in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. During September 2001 to August 2002, an extensive program of hydrogeological investigation and laboratory analysis of soil samples were undertaken to achieve the most reliable characterization of the subsoil and eventually to assist in the design and implementation of a pilot artificial recharge system for treated wastewater to groundwater. Regional groundwater flow simulations are made using the three-dimensional numerical model MODFLOW. The groundwater mounding has been simulated with a constant recharge of 60000 m3/d, and an infiltration rate of 0.75 m/d, while all other hydrogeological conditions are assumed as present conditions. The simulation shows that the groundwater mound beneath the center of the recharge basin can be expected to rise to about 15 m above the present water table, and after about 2 years will be a slight increment in the groundwater mound.
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This book contains study of boundary layer flow problems related to magneto hydrodynamic non- Newtonian fluid flows using quasilinearization technique. This study is essentially numerical in character, Constitutive equations are converted to ordinary differential equations and then Quasilinearization technique is applied to get numerical solution. In four of the problems studied, the fluid under consideration is of Walters Liquid B model. In one of the problems a power law fluid model is considered which has the facility of distinguishing the non-Newtonian fluid with the other cases. In all the problems the relevant flow field variables like velocity and temperature are numerically evaluated for diverse values of the fluid flow parameters that emerge in the problems. The solutions obtained for the problems in the thesis using the numerical approach stated are in good agreement with the corresponding numerical results obtained through analytical solutions. This strengthens the belief that for problems where in analytical solutions are eluding can be treated by the quasilinearization technique applied in the present book.
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The long-awaited revision of the bestseller on heat conduction Heat Conduction, Third Edition is an update of the classic text on heat conduction, replacing some of the coverage of numerical methods with content on micro- and nanoscale heat transfer. With an emphasis on the mathematics and underlying physics, this new edition has considerable depth and analytical rigor, providing a systematic framework for each solution scheme with attention to boundary conditions and energy conservation. Chapter coverage includes: Heat conduction fundamentals Orthogonal functions, boundary value problems, and the Fourier Series The separation of variables in the rectangular coordinate system The separation of variables in the cylindrical coordinate system The separation of variables in the spherical coordinate system Solution of the heat equation for semi-infinite and infinite domains The use of Duhamel's theorem The use of Green's function for solution of heat conduction The use of the Laplace transform One-dimensional composite medium Moving heat source problems Phase-change problems Approximate analytic methods Integral-transform technique Heat conduction in anisotropic solids Introduction to microscale heat conduction In addition, new capstone examples are included in this edition and extensive problems, cases, and examples have been thoroughly updated. A solutions manual is also available. Heat Conduction is appropriate reading for students in mainstream courses of conduction heat transfer, students in mechanical engineering, and engineers in research and design functions throughout industry.
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This book is designed to offer a lively presentation of Bi-criteria Flow Shop Scheduling problems with Sequence Dependent Setup Time. The introductory text provides a concise and practical situations to the primary concepts and various techniques in Flow Shop Scheduling Problems. A lot of research has already been done in the field of Bi-criteria Flow Shop Scheduling Problems. But only few efforts have been recorded so far to carry out Bi-criteria Flow Shop Scheduling Problems with Sequence Dependent Setup Time. The present work is an attempt to introduce concept of Sequence Dependent Setup time. The illustrative example format is introduced in the text to facilitate readers. This book can be read without prior knowledge of Bi-criteria Flow Shop Scheduling Problems.
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Groundwater development has shown phenomenal progress during past few decades. There has been vast improvement in the perception, outlook and significance of groundwater resource. The unplanned groundwater development may result in fall of water levels, failure of wells, and salinity ingress in coastal areas. The development and over-exploitation of groundwater resources in many parts of the world have raised the concern and need for judicious and scientific resource management and conservation. This book “Groundwater Assessment and Modelling” is intended to provide a comprehensive treatise on assessment and modelling of groundwater. It presents the related aspects on assessment of groundwater potential, groundwater data requirement and analysis, basic concepts and guidelines for groundwater modelling, groundwater modelling software, modelling of unsaturated flow, modelling of sea water intrusion, and impact of climate change on groundwater resources. The book is expected to be quite useful for undergraduate and postgraduate students (water resources engineering), field engineers and researchers working in the area of assessment, development and management of groundwater resources.
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As technology advances, groundwater resources are under increasing threat from growing demands & contamination. To tackle this, a key is to be able to model the overall physics of groundwater flow & contaminants in the saturated zone. Models provide the required information for making decisions associated with the management of groundwater resources, & prevent a risk of contamination. Thus, this book focuses on how to simulate the groundwater flow & Advective contaminant transport in fractured hard rock terrain, the latter focusing on migration pathway & travel time of contaminants. It explains how to build conceptual model of the system domain, how to use GIS to create the spatially distributed input parameter of the model & how to resample them to grid size of the model so that it makes easier to assign their respective values to model grid through cell by cell mechanism. It also explains how to: estimate the groundwater recharge using various models, use of Digital Elevation Model to extract input parameters of flow model, simulate and calibrate the model, and finally how to use the calibrated model to simulate contaminant transport in the hard rock terrain.
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Design of groundwater monitoring networks (GMN) of an aquifer has been one of the key concerns of researchers who deal with the management of groundwater contamination. To control, prevent, and remediation groundwater contamination, large number of monitoring well locations is required in a 3-D transient system. A state of the art groundwater monitoring network design, which combines groundwater flow and transport results with a Genetic Algorithm optimization procedure to identify optimal monitoring well location in 3-D, is presented in this book. The design approach differs from other (GMN)designs by placing the emphasis on maximizing the probability of tracking a transient contamination plume by determining sequential monitoring locations. It also addresses the issue of enhancing modelling accuracy when the hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data such as contaminant concentration measurement data are sparse. The groundwater contamination simulation results are introduced as input to the optimization model (Genetic Algorithm) to identify the groundwater optimal monitoring network design, based on several candidate monitoring locations.
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In present book there are carried out analytic investigations of point and spatial stochastic processes with application to modern problems of fracture mechanics, traffic flow, semiconductors, biology, genetics. It is developed model of nonlinear kinematic waves treatment in various branches of sciences, using also similar on form graphs for main two parameters of different media, as semiconductors, traffic flow, fracture mechanics. Analytic methods of expansion of solution on plane waves are more thoroughly developed. Using also universal experimental curves, same by form, are investigated by same methods, as for semiconductors, spatial stochastic processes of phase transition for traffic flow to bottleneck and for transition from chaotic grow and motion of micro-pores to formation of macro-fracture. Also stochastic point problems are salved for fracture mechanics.
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6390 руб.
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Most natural rivers, especially in their downstream reaches, consist of a deep and narrow main channel flanked by one or two shallow, complex and vegetated floodplains. Those floodplains provide increased storage for flood waves and protection for towns and cities along the river corridor. Groynes are hydraulic structures that protect against bank erosion, maintain water level by deflecting flow direction, and ensure navigation safety. Groynes constructed on large scale floodplains play important roles in high flood attenuation and protection; however, they add complexity to the system. The first part of this book present modeling the surface and river flow in river network of compound channels flanked by one/two complex floodplains with/without groynes and located in complex watershed using dynamic one- and quasi-two-dimensional river flow routing based on the solution of the full St. Venant Equations with lateral flow. In addition, the effects of the river floodplain impermeable groynes on the flow discharge and water depth have been considered. In the second part,the effects of the floodplain impermeable groynes on the flow structure, velocity and water depth are presented.
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Finding the universal characteristic explanation methods in the solution of olympic problems was always in the limelight in mathematics history. The following book is very useful, but at the same time, it is also very difficult. Every olympic problem is accepted as a small scientific work and it requires an individual solution method. In the present book, constructive solution method is investigated for the resolution of olympic problems on triangle. In the book have been presented the problems of different years which were proposed in different countries olympiads. A new solution method of these problems have been proposed. These problems demonstrate that the presenting method is very useful. The author considers that the relevant investigation should he continued.
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The mathematical model describing the different aspects of physical problems as well as numerical method adopted for their solution have been introduced and discussed. The different phases of overall numerical solution procedure from their non-dimensional form through the similarity transformation to the solution of flow equations have been described. The boundary layer flow around bodies of different shapes like shrinking sheet, cylinder, inclined plate, moving surface, moving vertical plate, cone immersed in the fluid have been studied. These mathematical models are commonly encountered in many studies in aerodynamic, chemical engineering, hydrodynamic, wind engineering and ocean engineering etc. The study of various effects like chemical reaction, viscous dissipation, magnetic effect, thermal radiation etc. have been made to study their effects on velocity, temperature and concentration. The quantities of physical interest viz. skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number have also been calculated and their analysis included in the study.
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The paper discusses the peculiarities of mathematical modeling of high-temperature processes in tubular rotary kilns on the examples of firing the cement mixture and mixture for the production of alumina. Also discussed methods of studies of the kinetics of solid-phase processes using calorimetry heat flow, as well as the solution of inverse problems of parametrical identification of kinetic models. Refer formulation and solution of tasks obtaining optimal temperature profile using the method of nonlinear programming.
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Groundwater, in general, is a high-value resource and especially important as a source of drinking water for many people. Groundwater has been known to be less polluted, but recent climate and land use changes threaten Groundwater quality. This applied research book focuses on describing and analyzing relationship between land use, hydrology, and geochemistry in a rural landscape in the Netherlands. There are three themes in the book. First, a Groundwater flow is simulated with a wide range of spatial data and software applications such as MODFLOW, PCRaster, Gstat, Python, and R. Factor Analysis was also performed in Python and R languages for the extraction of the major factors that influence Groundwater quality. Finally, the relationship between Groundwater flow and water quality was highlighted. This book is ideal for students, researchers, and policy makers who are looking for approaches in analyzing the nexus between Groundwater flow, Land use, and Groundwater quality.
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Surface water and groundwater interaction is an intrinsic component of the hydrologic budget on the watershed. Hydrologic modeling tools must account for this interaction to provide reliable predictions.In this study, for the simulation of the groundwater system, a steady and transient state groundwater model has been developed using the Visual MODFLOW program for a study area of Aa river, which is located on the eastern part of the Nete area, NE of Antwerp, Belgium. ArcView GIS was used for the estimation of the spatially distributed recharge, landuse and soil characteristics of the study area. This combined approach proves an effective tool in characterizing the groundwater-surface water system. This paper describes an analysis of sources of water to a pumping well in a shallow aquifer that discharges to a river.It is evident from the present model study that the groundwater is in direct contact with the river and river gets flow from aquifer throughout the study period. Furthermore, the results of the model are used to analyze the relationship between the groundwater and surface water with spatial extent of perturbations imposed on the entire flow system.
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The book focusses on one of the most complex and difficult problems in subsurface flow: the transport of water and dissolved substances through unsaturated soils. The predominantly vertical flow in the unsaturated zone is governing the processes of groundwater recharge as well as the input of any kind of waterborn substances that may be transported from the surface through the unsaturated zone into the groundwater body. The book focusses on analyzing the transport of water and solutes in unsaturated-saturated porous media with special emphasis on macropore effects due to plant roots - a significant effect in agricultural areas. Another specific strength of the present book is to be seen in the fact that a unique set of relatively large soil column tests has been conducted in a field setup, in which the effect of decayed plant roots channels on solute transport processes was investigated. These intensive field tests and the new results derived from the experiments provide a significant step forward in our understanding and quantification of the role of macropores connected with plant root channels.
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This book deals with some theoretical investigations of unsteady flow of second order visco elastic fluids through a porous medium. This book is broadly divided into 6 chapters, the opening chapter is introductory in nature highlighting mathematical modeling of visco elastic fluids that flow through porous media and states the flow-governing basic equations together with the related boundary conditions. The author’s investigations are incorporated in chapters ( II - VI) that follow. In all the investigations, the flow is governed by generalized momentum equations which take into account the shear stresses and the inertia acceleration in addition to the Darcy’s resistive force. The effects of the visco elastic nature of the fluid and the porous nature of the medium are expressed in terms of a compounded non-dimensional flow parameter (?).
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Groundwater quality varies due to the chemical, geochemical, and biochemical reactions of the pollutants in the subsurface flow systems. To reliably predict the fate of contaminant transport in groundwater, an accurate numerical modeling is required. Analytical and numerical simulation models help civil engineering to understand the physical and chemical processes that influence contaminant transport through a saturated soil layer, including advective and dispersive transport as well as sorption.In the present investigation, An attempt has been made to provide a simple but sufficiently accurate methodology for numerical simulation of the one, two and three dimensional contaminant transport through the saturated homogeneous porous media and landfill liners using Finite Element method. Exercise was undertaken to determine the rate of movement of contaminants from landfill, so as to arrive at expected future concentrations of contaminants in the groundwater around landfill. Systematic study conducted to determine the impact of municipal solid waste disposal at Bhalaswa landfill Site in New Delhi has reveled that the groundwater is being significantly contaminated due to the leachate.
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The study of the impacts of climate change on groundwater is a major factor that affects the developing strategic plans. The Gaza strip coastal aquifer area as one of the semi-arid areas is affected by climate changes and that absolutely affects all kinds of water resources including groundwater resource. The purpose of this study is to study the impacts of climate change on groundwater of the Gaza coastal aquifer and its impacts on general hydrological cycle of the Gaza coastal aquifer.
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This research will be helpful to people to display the 2-dimensional projective models of 4-variable actual problems in many fields, in order to investigate deeply those actual problems. By using the theory of N-dimensional finite rotation group of the regular polytopes, the author establishes the 2- dimensional projective model of 4-dimensional rectangular coordinate system, and deduces a transformation matrix, and adopts it to display successfully the 2-dimensional real shapes of two most complicated regular polytopes 120-Cell and 600- Cell. The author calculates all the vertex coordinates and determines the joint relations between adjacent vertices of the regular polytopes 120-Cell and 600-Cell. Also, this provides a pattern for displaying the 2-dimensional projective model of 4-variable actual problem.
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This is a book of computational fluid dynamic that using the lattice Boltzmann method for simulating moving shoreline or wave run-up phenomenon. Here the lattice Boltzmann method is modeled by incorporating thin film, and linear extrapolation techniques. The model is developed for one- and two-dimensional problems. At the end of this book, the model demonstrates the lattice Boltzmann method is capable of handling properly complex free surface flow phenomena.
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The study of the MHD flow with heat transfer is a new offshoot of mathematics currently receiving considerable interest.It has wide applications in Geophysics,Astrophysics,Engineering,Aeronautics. The essence of MHD comprises models which help to arrive at optimum decisions. These models constitute the subject of this book.The book considers the problems of the MHD flow with heat transfer.It is written for postgraduate students of Mathematics, Physics,& Engineering. Chapter1 is a General Introduction which gives i)A brief history of MHD.ii)Some fundamentals of the subject.Chapter2 consists of important parameters, definitions and basic equations governing the MHD flow with heat transfer.Chapter3 contains a discussion of the impact of heat transfer in the MHD flow past an infinite vertical plate with time- dependent suction.Chapter4 deals with the heat transfer aspect in a three dimensional MHD flow along a porous infinite flat plate in the presence of viscous dissipative heat and a transverse magnetic field.Chapter5 is an investigation into the effect of an electromagnetic field on generalized Couette flow with heat transfer.
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Update Vehicle Traffic Routing Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm is to implement the solution of combinatorial problem, based on the heuristic behavior of ant. This paper focuses on a highly developed solution procedure using ACO algorithm. This helps to solve routing problems easily. It also reflects the method considering flow, distance, cost, and emergency etc. Here, a new algorithm named UVTR (Update Vehicle Traffic Routing) is represented to overcome the complexity of the previous algorithm. It yields the typical process for removing traffic problems in case of flow, distance, cost etc. This formulation is represented with systematic rules based case study for the Dhaka City.
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Since the dawn of civilization, mankind has always had a fascination with fluids; whether it is the flow of water in rivers, the wind and weather in our atmosphere, the smelting of metals, powerful ocean currents or the flow of blood around our bodies. This book comprises with the basic concepts and foundation needed for the fluid flow and various numerical techniques commonly used for the solution of highly non linear ordinary and partial differential equations. The book also contains the physical model of some Industrial problems related to steady and unsteady magneto-hydrodynamic flows, flow of fluids in porous media, radiative flow of fluids with temperature dependent fluid properties etc. This book may be helpful to applied scientific fields, industries and the research workers working in the field of computational magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) heat and mass transfer flows in porous media.
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The book is concerned with the study of the energy states, wavefunctions and probability of existence of an electron in multidimensional heterostructures with specific boundary conditions through different solution techniques. To do so, the theory with briefexplanation of the Schrodinger’s equation inmulti-dimensions is presented. Next differenttechniques used for solution of 1D boundary value problems are discussed. A comparison is drawn among the methods and then the best one is chosen for the remaining part. Fair amount of concern is applied to this ‘Semi-Analytical’ solution technique which ensures easy determination of state energy values. Simple and regular multi-dimensional structures are analyzed then. Later, more complex and irregularstructures are emphasized to establish the generality of the solution technique. Size dependence of quantized energy levels in Quantum Dash structures is given special mention for it's usefulness in the Laser technology. Comparison of the results with an established finite element method is presented as well. People looking to analyze Eigen states for nano-structures should find this book useful.
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The apparent heterogeneities and complexities present in the hard rock aquifers makes it a challenging research to tackle groundwater problems. The intricacy increases manifold for the management of groundwater when the hard rock aquifers are situated in arid or semi-arid regions. The present work has been carried out in the Maheshwaram watershed which is situated about 35 km south of Hyderabad in the Ranga Reddy district of Andhra Pradesh, India. The study area is a true representative of an over exploited crystalline-rock watershed with semi-arid climatic conditions. To tackle the groundwater problems systematically, the research has been focused on fully understanding the aquifer system both in terms of structure and functioning, characterizing the flow parameters and developing a methodology for optimization of the piezometric network which is the most important pre-requisite for groundwater budget estimations. The methodology adopted for the geological and hydrogeological characterization of the fractured hard aquifers in the present study can be applied to any other hard rock region of the world in a similar setting.
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This thesis focuses on numerical modeling of depth-averaged shallow water equations. The finite volume based shock-capturing methods are used to discretize the governing equations. The one-dimensional and two-dimensional equations are solved implicitly using Newton-Raphson method for each time step. The two-dimensional model is implemented on unstructured quadrilateral as well as triangular grids. Applications and accuracy of the models are investigated using the experimental data and the previous numerical results available in the literature. The models are also validated by simulating tidal variations in a small stretch of the River Hooghly, India. A coupled model is also demonstrated and tested. In this approach, the river flow is considered to be one-dimensional and the floodplain flow as quasi two-dimensional. The two models are coupled considering only the mass flux and neglecting the momentum flux. The coupled model is applied to a small reach of River Thames, UK to predict the extent of inundation due to a real flood event and the results are compared with that derived from satellite imagery.
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Computers play an important role in Scientific Computing. Many new fields of science have emerged because of the invention and development of the computer. Solving parametric linear systems, involving uncertainties in the parameters, is an important part of the solution to many scientific and engineering problems. Usually, in most engineering design problems, models in operational research, linear prediction problems, there are complicated dependencies between coefficients. The main reason for this dependency is that the errors in several different coefficients may be caused by the same factor. For this reason, the interval analysis will be the tool which we will use for solving this type of problems. Interval methods (validated methods) not only can determine such guaranteed error bounds on the true solution, but can also verify that a unique solution to the problem exists.
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A simulation-optimization model which incorporates the flow and contaminant transport simulation model within an optimization program helps in designing the best satisfactory bioremediation system. For the effective bioremediation system design, the groundwater flow and contaminant transport should be simulated at various time steps. For optimal design, groundwater flow and transport modelling is coupled with optimization techniques of Particle swarm optimization. Biodegradation process is simulated by incorporating an instantaneous reaction model. Decision-makers require adequate information on these interactions in order to formulate sustainable water resources development strategies. A successful groundwater management requires precise information on groundwater quantity and quality, its renewability and the hydrogeological structure of the subsurface formation. Differential evolution (DE) is a method that optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to improve a candidate solution with regard to a given measure of quality. In this book in 2nd section transmissivity (T) values are estimated by coupling the differential evolution optimization technique with FEM simulation model.
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The new paradigm of Swarm Intelligence, called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), is one of the well-known evolutionary computation techniques, which can be considered as an efficient tool to find near optimal solution in a searching space. Especially, PSO is a useful method when the problems to be solved are high-dimensional, nonlinear or some specific information is unavailable. PSO combines the social-only model and the cognition-only model to select the adjustable parameters to approach optimal solution, its main advantage is its rapid convergence and small computational requirements, which make it a good candidate for solving optimization problems. In this book, the efficient, robust, and flexible PSO algorithms are proposed to generate some artificial intelligence system in solving some applications, such as cluster analysis, image processing, and neural network training.
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A Pilot project to estimate the groundwater condition of Myanmar.Groundwater and mineral potential of one country is vital for its sustainable development and planning. Water resources of Myanmar have not been well studied and developed. This Integrated approach of Remote Sensing and GIS in conjunction with the available well data helped in delineating the prospective groundwater zone with estimated yield in the study area and this approach can be used to map the preliminary estimated groundwater wealth of Myanmar.
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Groundwater is ultimate and most suitable fresh water resource for human consumption in both urban and rural area. The quality of groundwater is vital concern for man kind as most of the population in India is dependent on groundwater. Being an important an integral part of the hydrological cycle,its availability depends on rainfall and recharge conditions. Groundwater is believe to be comparatively much clean and free from pollution than surface water. But prolonged discharge of industrial effluents, domestic sewage & solid waste dump causes the groundwater to become polluted & created health related problems. Hence, there is always a need for and concern over the possible protection and management of groundwater quality. Any imbalance in its physical & chemical properties beyond permissible limit would be harmful for the whole ecosystem.
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Many problems in science and engineering have their mathematical formulation as an operator equation of the form F(x) = y, where F is a linear or nonlinear operator between certain function spaces. In practice, such equations are solved approximately using numerical methods, as their exact solution may not be often possible or may not be worth looking for due to physical constraints. In such situation, it is desirable to know how the so-called approximate solution approximates the exact solution, and what would be the error involved in such procedures. The main focus of the book is on the study of stably solving nonlinear ill posed operator equations of the form F(x)=y, with monotone nonlinear operator F in an infinite dimensional real Hilbert space X, that is , F obeys the monotonicity property. It is assumed that the exact data y is unknown and usually only noisy data are available. Problems of this type arise in a number of applications. Since the solution does not depend continuously on the data, the ill-posed problem has to be regularized. We considered iterative methods which converge to the unique solution of the method of Lavrentiev regularization.
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The aim of this book is to investigate the well-posedness as well as the asymptotic behavior of solutions of some systems of thermoelasticity type III in the presence of viscoelastic damping and/or delay. In this regard, we study several problems and establish an exponential decay result for the one-dimensional case and several general decay results for the multi-dimensional case under some suitable assumptions. This study improves and generalizes several results in the literature. The long-awaited revision of the bestseller on heat conduction Heat Conduction, Third Edition is an update of the classic text on heat conduction, replacing some of the coverage of numerical methods with content on micro- and nanoscale heat transfer. With an emphasis on the mathematics and underlying physics, this new edition has considerable depth and analytical rigor, providing a systematic framework for each solution scheme with attention to boundary conditions and energy conservation. Chapter coverage includes: Heat conduction fundamentals Orthogonal functions, boundary value problems, and the Fourier Series The separation of variables in the rectangular coordinate system The separation of variables in the cylindrical coordinate system The separation of variables in the spherical coordinate system Solution of the heat equation for semi-infinite and infinite domains The use of Duhamel's theorem The use of Green's function for solution of heat conduction The use of the Laplace transform One-dimensional composite medium Moving heat source problems Phase-change problems Approximate analytic methods Integral-transform technique Heat conduction in anisotropic solids Introduction to microscale heat conduction In addition, new capstone examples are included in this edition and extensive problems, cases, and examples have been thoroughly updated. A solutions manual is also available. Heat Conduction is appropriate reading for students in mainstream courses of conduction heat transfer, students in mechanical engineering, and engineers in research and design functions throughout industry.