groundwater in vicinity of landfill



Groundwater in Vicinity of Landfill Groundwater in Vicinity of Landfill Новинка

Groundwater in Vicinity of Landfill

Hydro-geochemical Characterization of Groundwater in vicinity of landfill was carried keeping in mind the impact of running landfill and closed landfill on groundwater quality. In this book a systematic approach was carried out to explain the application of different Multivariate and Graphical methods to characterize and evaluate the quality of groundwater in vicinity of unplanned landfills. Landfills are those areas, where most of garbage including domestic and industrial waste material was thrown out. If pretreatment of waste material was not carried out it causes multiple problems including contamination of Air, Water and soil.
Geo-physical method to Characterize Solid waste dump site Geo-physical method to Characterize Solid waste dump site Новинка

Geo-physical method to Characterize Solid waste dump site

Water quality degradation is one of the major environmental problems in Addis Ababa and the municipal solid waste dump site can be source of groundwater contamination as leachate may infiltrate and join the aquifer. Despite the potential danger of the Repi landfill (commissioned 4 decades ago with no evaluation of hydro-geologic condition of the area) to the groundwater system, empirical work on the level of sealing of the landfill has been largely scant. The book, therefore, provides geophysical techniques involving 2-D resistivity imaging and VES for a hydro- geophysical assessment of contamination of groundwater. The survey results clearly indicate that the underlying layers around the landfill are weak incapable of preventing downward movement of leachate from the landfill to the groundwater. Hence, the groundwater in this area may have been contaminated. It is hoped that the book can provide useful information for policies and practices aimed at minimizing the environmental impact of solid waste dump sites and should be especially useful to professionals in Environmental geophysics, or anyone else who may be considering utilizing geoelectrical methods.
Soil Column Investigation on Impact of MSW Leachate on Groundwater Soil Column Investigation on Impact of MSW Leachate on Groundwater Новинка

Soil Column Investigation on Impact of MSW Leachate on Groundwater

MSW is a growing problem. The deposit of MSW in landfill produces leachate, which is considered crucial in groundwater contamination. Leachate percolates to the aquifer through the soil profile bearing organic and inorganic matters, heavy metals and some other contaminants. Soil columns method used for the investigation of the percolation of the MSW leachate to the groundwater through the soil strata. Soil can play role in delaying of the contaminants, but not preventing them from reaching of the groundwater.
Sources of Chloride and its Impact on Groundwater Sources of Chloride and its Impact on Groundwater Новинка

Sources of Chloride and its Impact on Groundwater

Road salting, like any other activity that could significantly disturb the groundwater, has the potential to adversely affect the quality of groundwater within the vicinity of the road salt operations. Contamination of groundwater has been growing incessantly particularly due to road salt applications. Once the groundwater system gets contaminated, cleaning and redemption is costly. This study provides the current state-of-the-art knowledge on interactions between road salting and the environment. This will include the sources of chloride and its effects on the soil, vegetation, and shallow groundwater. In particular, this study analyzes the transport and transport processes related to propagation of chloride from road salt into adjacent groundwater resources. This work also presents the development of a conceptual, mathematical and numerical model of groundwater flow and solute transport by employing software packages, in particular GMS (Groundwater Modelling System).
Contaminant Transport Modeling through Saturated Porous Media Contaminant Transport Modeling through Saturated Porous Media Новинка

Contaminant Transport Modeling through Saturated Porous Media

Groundwater quality varies due to the chemical, geochemical, and biochemical reactions of the pollutants in the subsurface flow systems. To reliably predict the fate of contaminant transport in groundwater, an accurate numerical modeling is required. Analytical and numerical simulation models help civil engineering to understand the physical and chemical processes that influence contaminant transport through a saturated soil layer, including advective and dispersive transport as well as sorption.In the present investigation, An attempt has been made to provide a simple but sufficiently accurate methodology for numerical simulation of the one, two and three dimensional contaminant transport through the saturated homogeneous porous media and landfill liners using Finite Element method. Exercise was undertaken to determine the rate of movement of contaminants from landfill, so as to arrive at expected future concentrations of contaminants in the groundwater around landfill. Systematic study conducted to determine the impact of municipal solid waste disposal at Bhalaswa landfill Site in New Delhi has reveled that the groundwater is being significantly contaminated due to the leachate.
Quantification of leachate discharged to groundwater:modeling approach Quantification of leachate discharged to groundwater:modeling approach Новинка

Quantification of leachate discharged to groundwater:modeling approach

Landfills are one of the groundwater pollution sources in the world. This study focuses on two landfills; the first has a lining system and the second does not have lining system to assess the generated leachate quantity and percolation to the groundwater aquifer at a specific sites, using the approaches of (i) the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance model (HELP) and (ii) the water balance method (WBM). Furthermore, landfill components were analyzed to study their influence on the quantity of percolated leachate to groundwater. The Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as a tool to illustrate spatial distribution of the pollutant indicator. Finally, mitigation measures were proposed to reduce the percolated leachate and its negative impacts on groundwater.
Surface and groundwater contamination from landfill Surface and groundwater contamination from landfill Новинка

Surface and groundwater contamination from landfill

The potential of the Kaduna landfill leachate to contaminate groundwater and surface water systems were evaluated using mathematical models under the worst conditions expected after construction. The results are predictive, and are based on both existing and measured data. The proposed facility, though desirable, would pose some threat to natural water bodies. A comprehensive leachate management scheme is recommended in addition to containment of leachate using impermeable liner system, perimeter and base blinding and post-construction monitoring.
Utilization of the recultivated area of the part landfill Utilization of the recultivated area of the part landfill Новинка

Utilization of the recultivated area of the part landfill

The monograph deals with the issue of the landfill gas generation and its use in a combined heat and power system (CHP). This book focuses on the verification of the influence of a number of wells on the operation of the cogeneration unit. The utilization of landfill gas has several important advantages. In particular, the energy use of the byproduct of landfill and the recovery of waste. In addition, the combustion of landfill gas eliminates the negative environmental impacts resulting from free discharge of formed gas up to the air. The monograph highlights the simulating of the landfill gas generation and provides a comparison of the simulation results with the measurements carried out in the landfill Uholicky. The monograph describes a proposal of the utilization of the recultivated area in the Uholicky landfill, the economic evaluation of the proposal, which includes the budget of the particular items of the Photovoltaic Power Plant (FVE) of the landfill site, and the estimated revenues and payback period of the investment for the proposed output. The data contained in the monograph indicated that landfilling is the most common method of waste treatment in Slovakia.
Removing Arsenic from Landfill Leachate with Kemiron Adsorbent Removing Arsenic from Landfill Leachate with Kemiron Adsorbent Новинка

Removing Arsenic from Landfill Leachate with Kemiron Adsorbent

Landfill leachate with arsenic (As) contamination poses a threat to Florida aquifer because of the nature of the geology of the State. Florida sits directly on limestone which also hosts the main Florida aquifers. But the underlying rock and/or soil dissolve(s) away when the environmental pH becomes acidic. This results in sinkhole formations and is of a great concern especially, in areas of landfill locations. There is a potential of leakage of the leachate from the landfill into the aquifers threatening the quality and safety of the groundwater. In the United States, Class I landfills are classified as non-hazardous and contain materials such as woods and other construction materials. However, the leachate from the Class I landfills sometimes contain Arsenic of significant concentrations. At North Polk County in Florida, leachate from Class I landfill, was treated onsite by coagulation, precipitation and filtration. Occasionally when Arsenic was detected, the leachate was shipped and treated at nearby Waste Water Treatment which was expensive. This work evaluates a possibility of adopting adsorption process in fixed bed which is comparatively less expensive and sustainable
Mature Municipal Landfill Leachate Treatment: Ion Exchange Practice Mature Municipal Landfill Leachate Treatment: Ion Exchange Practice Новинка

Mature Municipal Landfill Leachate Treatment: Ion Exchange Practice

Mature leachate generated from an aged sanitary landfill is typically classified as non-biodegradable.Disposal of untreated landfill leachate can be a source of hazard to receiving waters. Therfore, treatment of landfill leachate is considered environmentally essential. The application of ion exchange process in landfill leachate treatment was not well established in literature. Optimized operational conditions and the interaction among process variables for this treatment process were unidentified, leaving a substantial gap in landfill leachate treatment knowledge. In the present work, the treatment of mature landfill leachate using vriouse ion exchange process ssuch as cationic resin, anionic resin only, cationic followed by anionic (cationic-anionic), and anionic followed by cationic (anionic-cationic) were established and documented for the first time.
Policy Framework for Sustainable Groundwater Abstraction Policy Framework for Sustainable Groundwater Abstraction Новинка

Policy Framework for Sustainable Groundwater Abstraction

Groundwater is an important resource in urban area in terms of social and economic well being of population in most of the developing countries.In urban area,groundwater is mostly used for public water-supply,commercial use and for providing services.The Groundwater abstraction rate is higher than the recharge rate in the valley.That is why groundwater table is declining by 2.5m/year.Thus for managing groundwater the proposed regulatory framework consists of four main components such as Source,Allocation, Infrastructure/Network and Use.The measures under this main components includes provision of License/Permit,Fine to violation,Groundwater users charge (Metering),protection of the source, zoning of the critical area,monitoring of the groundwater wells,Alternative water source,limit losses,public awareness and stimulate efficient use of the resource. This regulatory mechanism will help for the sustainable groundwater management in the valley.
Prediction of Pollutant Leaching from Landfill Prediction of Pollutant Leaching from Landfill Новинка

Prediction of Pollutant Leaching from Landfill

The book deals with the study of correlation relationship of factors affecting leachate quality to predict pollutant from landfill which are determined by temperature, precipitation and waste age. Results of the study revealed that there is a good correlation of pollutants leaching from landfill to the factors of temperature, precipitation and waste age. Higher pollutant concentration is found in average age landfill than mature age landfill site mainly due to transition from acetogenic phase to methanogenic phase of pollutant decomposition. Using multiple regression Aaalysis method, mathemetic model known as Pollutant Prediction Model is developed to correlate relationship of pollutant to factor affecting leachate quality in the landfill site in term of temperature, precipitation and waste age.
Integrated GIS & Hydrogeophysics for Groundwater Pollution Assessment Integrated GIS & Hydrogeophysics for Groundwater Pollution Assessment Новинка

Integrated GIS & Hydrogeophysics for Groundwater Pollution Assessment

Groundwater resources is being contaminated especially where it is within the Landfill environment because due to time, the leachate tend to posed an effect to the groundwater regime of the area thereby making the groundwater resources not adequate for drinking. Groundwater is regarded to be the most valuable resources and its quality is affected by virtually every activity of the society thereby making groundwater protection complicated. The use of GIS as a tool and Hydrogeophysics for the assessment of the groundwater pollution has been a vulnerable and a most scientific way of assessing groundwater condition of an area Despite the provision of potable water through the state government micro water works to the people of the people of Ikeja, the populace still depends on wells (shallow and deep) for their domestic water supply. This book is basically written to serves as a guide to water engineering companies, water practioners, Borehole drilling companies, environmental engineers, ministries of water resources, and other practioners in the water industries who might be embarking on a water project especially in Ikeja Local Government, Lagos, Nigeria.
Environmental and Health Risk Assessment of Al-Akaider Landfill Environmental and Health Risk Assessment of Al-Akaider Landfill Новинка

Environmental and Health Risk Assessment of Al-Akaider Landfill

Al-Akaider landfill is one of the hot environmental spots in Northern Jordan. It is located within the boundaries of Al-Mafraq Governorate at a distance of 27 km east of Irbid City and about 1 km from the Jordanian / Syrian border. Solid waste deposition in the landfill started in 1981 and it is intended to close the landfill in 2020. The landfill receives MSW with a quantity of 700 tones/day. Industrial wastewater from slaughterhouses, dairy industry, dyeing industry and chicken sludge are being disposed at special evaporation ponds at the site. The objectives of the study are to review the situation of the current landfilling practices at Al-Akaider landfill, identify and assess the environmental and health risks associated with Al-Akaider landfill and to recommend management options to minimize such risks. The work throughout this study is divided into two major categories; risk assessment of industrial wastewater ponds and leachate at Al-Akaider landfill site and risk assessment of gaseous emissions released from the landfill and their impacts on the neighboring communities and the surrounding environment.
Groundwater Assessment and Modelling Groundwater Assessment and Modelling Новинка

Groundwater Assessment and Modelling

Groundwater development has shown phenomenal progress during past few decades. There has been vast improvement in the perception, outlook and significance of groundwater resource. The unplanned groundwater development may result in fall of water levels, failure of wells, and salinity ingress in coastal areas. The development and over-exploitation of groundwater resources in many parts of the world have raised the concern and need for judicious and scientific resource management and conservation. This book “Groundwater Assessment and Modelling” is intended to provide a comprehensive treatise on assessment and modelling of groundwater. It presents the related aspects on assessment of groundwater potential, groundwater data requirement and analysis, basic concepts and guidelines for groundwater modelling, groundwater modelling software, modelling of unsaturated flow, modelling of sea water intrusion, and impact of climate change on groundwater resources. The book is expected to be quite useful for undergraduate and postgraduate students (water resources engineering), field engineers and researchers working in the area of assessment, development and management of groundwater resources.
Mechanism and Source Mineral Releasing Fluoride in Groundwater of Indo-Gangetic Plain Mechanism and Source Mineral Releasing Fluoride in Groundwater of Indo-Gangetic Plain Новинка

Mechanism and Source Mineral Releasing Fluoride in Groundwater of Indo-Gangetic Plain

In the central part of Indo-Gangetic alluvium in the Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India there are many pockets where groundwater shows high fluoride content. Drinking of fluorinated ground water has effected a large population and in many villages more than 80% of the population is suffering from fluorosis. The source of fluoride in groundwater is being geogenic in nature and this research thesis emphasizes on the source mineral releasing fluoride in the groundwater.
Study on Electrocoagulation-Oxidation of MSW Leachate Treatment Study on Electrocoagulation-Oxidation of MSW Leachate Treatment Новинка

Study on Electrocoagulation-Oxidation of MSW Leachate Treatment

Leachate is highly polluted liquid due to high content of ammonium ions and organic compounds. The high ammonia content causes the problem when leachate move downwards from landfill into ground-water table as a result of infiltrated precipitation, ground-water gets contaminated. Once groundwater is contaminated it is very costly to clean-up. The treatment technologies used for the treatment of leachate change from site to site and landfill to landfill due to characteristics change of the leachate. IN this present book a brief review of the methods and technologies used for municipal solid waste & lechate Management are discussed and further the results achieved by a combined electrocoagulation-oxidation of leachate sample is presented.
Hillslope Hydrology and Recharge Hillslope Hydrology and Recharge Новинка

Hillslope Hydrology and Recharge

The temporal and spatial distributions of precipitation are extremely uneven, so making careful management of water resources in Taiwan is crucial. The long-term over-exploitation of groundwater resources poses a challenge to water resource management in Taiwan. However, assessing groundwater resources in mountainous basins is challenging due to limited information.The principal objectives of this book are to investigate the groundwater resources in mountainous basin through a set of detailed case studies. This book is mainly divided into three major parts including: (1) groundwater recharge estimation; (2) groundwater recharge potential zone mapping; and (3) groundwater recharge characteristics evaluation. Evaluating the hillslope hydrology can help determine the groundwater recharge characteristics in Taiwan’s mountain region for the goal of water resource protection.
Landfill Areas of Delhi, India Landfill Areas of Delhi, India Новинка

Landfill Areas of Delhi, India

Environmentally sound management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a key challenge in developing countries. The present study focuses upon the problem of MSW in the densely populated Delhi city. With its escalating population and expanding middle class Delhi generates mountains of wastes. The landfill sites are overflowing to which non-segregation of wastes adds more problems, leading to emission of Greenhouse Gases from these landfill areas. The author has attempted to quantification of heavy metals and GHG emissions, (methane and nitrous oxide) from three landfill areas of Delhi,India.
An integrtaion of RS & GIS for national groundwater wealth in Myanmar An integrtaion of RS & GIS for national groundwater wealth in Myanmar Новинка

An integrtaion of RS & GIS for national groundwater wealth in Myanmar

A Pilot project to estimate the groundwater condition of Myanmar.Groundwater and mineral potential of one country is vital for its sustainable development and planning. Water resources of Myanmar have not been well studied and developed. This Integrated approach of Remote Sensing and GIS in conjunction with the available well data helped in delineating the prospective groundwater zone with estimated yield in the study area and this approach can be used to map the preliminary estimated groundwater wealth of Myanmar.
Groundwater potential assessment and numerical flow modeling Groundwater potential assessment and numerical flow modeling Новинка

Groundwater potential assessment and numerical flow modeling

This book provides a simple and easy apporoach for those who are intended to work or conduct study on groundwater potential and understanding of the flow behavior which is important for proper management of groundwater resources. This work deals with groundwater potential assessment and numerical flow modeling for estimating the recharge, assessing the groundwater balance and understanding the groundwater flow behavior. In addition, the book demonstrates modeling approach and application of mathematical models. In this book the used model is PMWIN Pro (Modflow), which is proved to be a very useful tool for the investigation of the hydrogeological characteristics, the interaction between river and aquifers, and the water budget of the catchment. Finally, the author suggests that groundwater flow modeling can be a useful technique for planning the production of water supply wells in aquifers.
Ground Water Quality and Contamination due to Recharging of Water Ground Water Quality and Contamination due to Recharging of Water Новинка

Ground Water Quality and Contamination due to Recharging of Water

In the present book an effort has been made to give an introduction to groundwater specially its detection technique, quality, contamination and precaution for the storage & recharging are discussed. The importance of groundwater in meeting the growing demand from agriculture, industry and domestic sectors, but by getting groundwater form the water harvesting and groundwater recharging activity is always associated with an insertion of contaminants like pesticides and agrochemicals used for the agricultural purpose. These contaminants may convert the pure form of water i.e. groundwater to polluted water. The need of an in depth survey with respect to presence of such contaminants in groundwater due to recharging is taken in to consideration for the present study.
Groundwater Flow And Water Balance Modeling Of Wukro Basin Groundwater Flow And Water Balance Modeling Of Wukro Basin Новинка

Groundwater Flow And Water Balance Modeling Of Wukro Basin

Groundwater is a precious natural resource of limited extent. In order to ensure its judicious use,proper evaluation is required. Evaluation of groundwater involves several factors of which,Groundwater flow and recharge is paramount. Modeling of flow system and quantification of the recharge rate is a prerequisite for efficient and sustainable management of groundwater. This book is mainly concerned with estimation of spatially distributed natural recharge using WetSpass model and modeling groundwater flow system of Wukro basin, Northern Ethiopia.
Impact of Urbanization on Groundwater Impact of Urbanization on Groundwater Новинка

Impact of Urbanization on Groundwater

Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, has one of the fastest urban growth rates among the developing countries. Groundwater provides about 87% of the total water supply of the city. Due to rapid increase in population the demand of water for the city has raised from 150 mld in 1963 to 2100 mld in 2005. Thereby, groundwater abstraction in the city has increased more than 700% from 1960 to 1995. But the rate of recharge to the aquifer is decreasing with increase in pavement area. The declining rate of water level is 2-3m per year. This book aims to understand the urbanization pattern and its impacts on the groundwater of the city. Data and information regarding urbanization of Dhaka collected from BBS. Statistics relating to water production, supply and demand, system loss are collected from DWASA. Groundwater level data from BWDB and BADC have been used to construct hydrographs of different locations in the city which indicate the increasing trend of drop of water level and higher vulnerability of groundwater of the city. Therefore, this book has intended to put forward some measures that may contribute effectively in the sustainable utilization of groundwater resource.
Hydrogeological Evaluation of the Coastal Aquifer in the Gaza Strip Hydrogeological Evaluation of the Coastal Aquifer in the Gaza Strip Новинка

Hydrogeological Evaluation of the Coastal Aquifer in the Gaza Strip

Pollution and scarcity of groundwater becomes one of the most common environmental problems in countries the Mediterranean region Natural and anthropogenic factors have impacts on the deterioration of the quality and quantity of groundwater. For determination the situation of groundwater (quantity and suitability) for domestic use, the geological and hydrogeo-logical characteristics had been investigated (Cl concentration in the pumped water and water level maps have been drawn and their relationship with distribution of abstraction rates for pumping wells. Rainfall distribution maps and aquifer lithological cross sections had been drawn also to determine their roles on the groundwater situation. Long term of ground water exploitation, climate change combined with decreasing quantity of rainfall and in addition to the aquifer lithological structure. All these factors are playing very important roles in the groundwater deterioration around the world.
Evaluation of Groundwater Using Geographic Information Systems Evaluation of Groundwater Using Geographic Information Systems Новинка

Evaluation of Groundwater Using Geographic Information Systems

Egypt is one of the countries which characterized by arid climate. Water is the major factor in development of the country. Nile River is the main water source in Egypt, while the second water source is groundwater especially in the desert areas. The growing population and the need for improving the living conditions of Egyptian community have been resulted in the establishment of new urban areas, industrial zones, land reclamation, and different types of developmental projects. In the Nile Valley, the only available areas for carrying out such activities are the desert zones surrounding the floodplain on both sides of the Nile Valley. Undoubtedly, one of the ways to provide valuable information about these zones is by evaluating and understanding groundwater in the area and land suitability for the development. A strip of the desert zones has already been reclaimed and is irrigated essentially with groundwater. The continuous increase in groundwater demand in the desert fringes is believed to affect sustainability of the groundwater supply both quantitatively and qualitatively. Geographic Information Systems has proved to be an efficient tool in evaluation of Groundwater.
Climate Change and Its Impacts on Irrigation and Groundwater Resources Climate Change and Its Impacts on Irrigation and Groundwater Resources Новинка

Climate Change and Its Impacts on Irrigation and Groundwater Resources

Northwest Bangladesh is one of the most water stressed regions of the country. All the rivers and channels of the area dry up during the dry season and make the people completely dependent on groundwater. Cultivation of dry season rice which is the lifeline of the livelihood of the region completely relies of groundwater supply. Prolonged absence of groundwater within the operating range of shallow tube-wells during the dry season is a growing concern in the area. It is anticipated that climate change will aggravate the situation in near future.This book discusses probable changes in the climate and their impacts on irrigation and groundwater resources in the area. Groundwater hydrographs are analyzed and correlated with meteorological drought, climate models are applied to project the future change of climate, changes in irrigation demands are calculated under projected climate, and the impacts of changing irrigation demand on groundwater resources are discussed. It is expected that the research works presented in this book will be beneficial to a number of stakeholders to improve their understanding on climate change and its impacts on water resources in Northwest Bangladesh.
Groundwater quality in coastal Aquifer Groundwater quality in coastal Aquifer Новинка

Groundwater quality in coastal Aquifer

The rapid growth in population in India enhanced the groundwater salinity through excessive consumption of groundwater for agricultural, domestic and industrial purposes due to the lack in surface water sources and high water demand. Moreover, high evaporation and low and erratic rainfall depleted the groundwater level and available groundwater quantity, especially in the coastal areas, and resulted in seawater intrusion.In the present study, a detailed investigation was carried out to evaluate the geochemical processes regulating groundwater quality in coastal aquifers of Tuticorin region. The water samples collected in the field were analyzed for EC, pH, TDS and major cations analyzed in the laboratory using the standard methods given by the APHA. The GIS based groundwater quality mapping in the form of visually communicating contour maps was developed using ArcGIS-9.2. The cation concentration indicate that 83%, 39% and 22% of the K, Na, Ca concentrations exceed the WHO limit. As per Wilcox’s diagram and US Salinity laboratory classification, most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation due to the presence of high salinity and medium sodium hazard.
The Impacts of Municipal Landfill Leachate on Groundwater Quality The Impacts of Municipal Landfill Leachate on Groundwater Quality Новинка

The Impacts of Municipal Landfill Leachate on Groundwater Quality

Municipal solid waste disposal is a global concern, most especially in a developing nation like Nigeria where landfills are better categorized as open dumps, sited for convenience and usually involve the pitching of garbage into pre-existing holes. These open pits are located near residential housing, posing a threat to public health and the environment. Leachate, a high-strength wastewater, generated from the dumps poses a serious contamination risk to groundwater. This work was therefore done to assess the impacts of leachate percolation on groundwater quality and evaluate its toxicity using the African catfish. The occurrence of some conventional contaminants in some of the groundwater samples at concentrations above the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits for drinking water is a serious health concern. The results from the acute toxicity study reveal that the leachate is toxic and would be of assistance in the ecological risk assessment of landfills. The book calls for the stakeholders in solid waste management to make sustainable practices a high priority and construct well engineered landfills to ensure the protection of human health and the environment.
A 3-D GIS model for monitoring groundwater quantity A 3-D GIS model for monitoring groundwater quantity Новинка

A 3-D GIS model for monitoring groundwater quantity

Geological models for monitoring groundwater quantity are an essential component of groundwater investigations as well as for rural/urban groundwater management.This study and research work presents geographical environment that will enable the visual analysis of groundwater boreholes, aquifers, and pre and post monsoon water levels in the Sabarkatha region. The study area is the irrigation region in Gujarat, India. The primary aim for this research is to develop a 3-dimensional geo-referenced groundwater model for water quantity management which integrates a groundwater modelling system and GIS.
Arsenic in groundwater: a study in Lakhimpur district, Assam, India Arsenic in groundwater: a study in Lakhimpur district, Assam, India Новинка

Arsenic in groundwater: a study in Lakhimpur district, Assam, India

This book provides an overview of the current state of knowledge on the occurrence and distribution of arsenic and iron problems in water supplies in North Lakhimpur sub-division of Lakhimpur district, Assam. With groundwater-based water supply and irrigation projects being implemented across India, this book is an attempt to address the groundwater contamination of arsenic and iron in a regional context. A comprehensive analytical and statistical analysis of distribution of pH, arsenic and iron in groundwater in seven development blocks of North Lakhimpur sub-division of Lakhimpur district, Assam has been presented in this book. The water sources, selected for this study, have been in use for a long time for meeting drinking water needs and other domestic purposes. The focus of the study is on the rural areas rather than urban areas, due to the particular difficulties associated with applying mitigation measures in scattered rural communities. Sporadic occurrence of arsenic in groundwater has been observed in the study area. It is hoped that the book can be used as a reference while carrying out regional-scale studies of groundwater quality in near future.
Groundwater Quality and its Impacts on Human Health Groundwater Quality and its Impacts on Human Health Новинка

Groundwater Quality and its Impacts on Human Health

The carelessness of mankind in present era of technology has adversely affected the natural resources of the planet. The scarcity of safe and fresh drinking water in most of the places on earth is a consequent effect in this regard. Surface water sources have been polluted and due to increasing demand groundwater level is also depleting at very fast rate. This book reflects some insights on groundwater quality and associated diseases in rural inhabitants of Punjab state in India.. The objective of the book is to characterize the groundwater quality and explore the prevalence of various waterborne disease in the region. The book is supposed to add to the awareness level of the readers about the situation in region under investigation.
Economics of Natural Resource Overexploitation Economics of Natural Resource Overexploitation Новинка

Economics of Natural Resource Overexploitation

Resource use efficiency is very important aspect for sustainable development, in this book practical aspects of the cost of groundwater extraction, impact of groundwater depletion on farm income, water use efficiency, technical efficiency (TE) in crop production & costs of groundwater depletion among different categories of farmers have been recorded in the Indian State of Karnataka, where groundwater is the major source of irrigation. Data have been collected from over-exploited (OE), semi-critical (SC) & safe villages. The functional analysis shows farm income is lower in OE & SC villages compared to safe villages. The mean TE in crop production has been found highest among farmers in OE villages. The total cost of groundwater depletion has been reported more in OE villages & the cost increases with increase in the size of holding. The impact of this cost was maximum on small & marginal farmers. The study has emphasized on the need for incentivizing for efficient use of groundwater by adopting efficient irrigation technologies to ensure livelihood security. The book would be of interest to students, researchers & professionals in the area of agricultural & rural development.
Arsenic Mobilization Arsenic Mobilization Новинка

Arsenic Mobilization

Arsenic (As) has been identified as the number one environmental chemical of concern with regard to the human health according to the World Health Organization. It is estimated that more than 100 millions people are at serious risk of high As exposure (>50 ?g/L) in groundwater. In terms of magnitude of exposure and number of people affected, the problem of As contamination in groundwater of North Matlab, Southeastern Bangladesh is devastating. Groundwater is the prime source of drinking water in Matlab North upazila, sub-district of Chandpur district, and where population is heavily rely on groundwater from Holocene alluvial aquifers. The distribution of lithofacies, and its relation to hydraulic conductivity and hydrochemistry in such heterogeneous deposits are of fundamental importance for the analysis of groundwater conditions and arsenic enrichment in the groundwater aquifers. This book, therefore, helps to understand the sediments' relation with groundwater chemistry and arsenic enrichment.
Pharmaceutical Waste Management Pharmaceutical Waste Management Новинка

Pharmaceutical Waste Management

Improper disposal of pharmaceutical is having an adverse impact on the environment and human health worldwide The waste and disposal problem starts with the production of active pharmaceutical ingredient and finishes with the final disposal of a pharmaceutical product. Pharmaceutical waste many also contaminate the environment through improper incineration or landfill placement. The risk of disposal in the sewage system or in landfill is that the drug will ultimately reach the water cycle either by direct contamination or by leaching form landfill sites.
Groundwater In The Banana Plain And Mount Cameroon Area-Cameroon Groundwater In The Banana Plain And Mount Cameroon Area-Cameroon Новинка

Groundwater In The Banana Plain And Mount Cameroon Area-Cameroon

The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is one of the major geological structures of the African plate and continent and is known as the second most important geological curiosity in Africa after the East-African-Rift system. This book focuses on the use of hydrochemistry, multivariate statistics and environmental tracers (18O, 2H, 3H and CFCs) to establish the origin, geochemical evolution, usability and groundwater flow system of groundwater resources of two agro-industrial areas of the CVL (Banana Plain and Mount Cameroon area). The findings of this book are important in that they contribute in the identification of groundwater quality evolution and flow dynamics in these two important agro-industrial areas thereby contributing to the sustainable management of their groundwater resources. Of particular interest is the vulnerability of the shallow aquifers to nitrate contamination to anthropogenic activities in the Banana Plain. In the Mount Cameroon area, the conceptualization of the flow system and the occurrence of different recharge elevations will play a role in finding proper sites for future groundwater development and catchment area protection.
Isotopic and Geochemical techniques to study Groundwater Pollution Isotopic and Geochemical techniques to study Groundwater Pollution Новинка

Isotopic and Geochemical techniques to study Groundwater Pollution

Groundwater (deep and shallow) in Islamabad particularly in vicinity of Lei Nala were characterized by environmental stable (?13C) and Radioactive (tritium) isotopes as well as hydrogeochemical parameters such as physiochemical (pH, EC, TDS, DO and temperature), major cation (Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+1, K+1), anion (NO3-1, SO4-2, CO3-2, HCO3-1, Cl-1) and toxic metals (Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe, As, Cr and Co). Piper diagram reveals that Ca-Mg- type of water is dominant in the studied area. The percentage of samples falling under Ca-Mg-type was 53.86 %. For anion concentration, HCO3-type of water predominated with 96.15 % samples. Stable isotope techniques in combination of conventional classical techniques have been applied for this investigation Stable carbon isotope techniques have helped to understand the level and source of contamination in groundwater. The more depleted ?13C (TDIC) values around –8 to –11 ‰ PDB are mainly indicative of inventory of domestic sewage pollution. As such, this study indicates the potential of ?13C (TDIC) technique in relation to physiochemical techniques for assessment of the sources of pollution.
Water Analyses Water Analyses Новинка

Water Analyses

Groundwater is ultimate and most suitable fresh water resource for human consumption in both urban and rural area. The quality of groundwater is vital concern for man kind as most of the population in India is dependent on groundwater. Being an important an integral part of the hydrological cycle,its availability depends on rainfall and recharge conditions. Groundwater is believe to be comparatively much clean and free from pollution than surface water. But prolonged discharge of industrial effluents, domestic sewage & solid waste dump causes the groundwater to become polluted & created health related problems. Hence, there is always a need for and concern over the possible protection and management of groundwater quality. Any imbalance in its physical & chemical properties beyond permissible limit would be harmful for the whole ecosystem.
Hydrogeochemistry of Weathered Basement Aquifer Groundwater Hydrogeochemistry of Weathered Basement Aquifer Groundwater Новинка

Hydrogeochemistry of Weathered Basement Aquifer Groundwater

Hydrogeochemistry of Weathered Basement Aquifer Groundwater uses a quantitative approach to examine the role of hydrogeochemistry in groundwater development, monitoring and remediation programs. This book offers a groundwater hydrogeochemistry model that represents a base for the present and future hydrogeological planning, protection and decision-making regarding groundwater resources management at a level understandable to a worldwide audience. This book is intended for students in hydrogeochemistry, hydrogeology, environmental sciences, water resource engineering and management and professionals in integrated water resources management. Readers of all backgrounds can gain a better understanding of hydrogeochemical processes and how they apply to groundwater systems.
Arsenic pollution in groundwater of Middle Gangetic Plain Arsenic pollution in groundwater of Middle Gangetic Plain Новинка

Arsenic pollution in groundwater of Middle Gangetic Plain

Because of rigorous problems of water stress and water quality degradation, there is prime concern about groundwater quality all over the world. For south Asian countries especially India and Bangladesh, high levels of arsenic, nitrate, fluoride and salinity in groundwater have severe consequences to human health which trigger us to conduct this work. This study is an effort to trace the factors responsible for arsenic enrichment in groundwater of the two major states (Bihar and Uttar Pradesh) in middle Gangetic Plain of India through major ion chemistry, arsenic speciation and multivariate statistical techniques. Weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals, surface water interactions, ion exchange, redox processes, and anthropogenic activities are responsible for groundwater contamination with high concentrations of cations, anions and arsenic in the groundwater. This study is vital considering that groundwater is the exclusive source of drinking water in the region and not only makes situation alarming but also calls for immediate attention.
Modeling of Contaminant Transport for Lake Kiyanja Watershed, Uganda Modeling of Contaminant Transport for Lake Kiyanja Watershed, Uganda Новинка

Modeling of Contaminant Transport for Lake Kiyanja Watershed, Uganda

Irregular waste disposal system, which results in the potential problem of groundwater and surface water contamination due to production of toxic leachate, has still now been considered as a very common practice in most of the developing countries including Uganda. Realizing the gravity of that problem, a study was conducted to develop a conceptual model considering all possible factors that usually take part in the hydrogeological processes of Lake Kiyanja watershed to assess the groundwater contamination vulnerability. Analysis of Groundwater boundaries, aquifer system, existing boreholes, recharge and discharge sources and the associated water balance were performed in developing the conceptual model. Using this, a numerical model was then developed with the help of Ground Water Modelling System (GMS). The specific solute transport model MT3DMS was used in simulation of this numerical model. The model shows that the contamination needs at least 27 years hours to reach near the outflux boundary. However, the contamination hazards from the landfill to the ground water will not be occurred immediately.
Stable Isotope Studies of Groundwater in the Ga West Municipal, Ghana Stable Isotope Studies of Groundwater in the Ga West Municipal, Ghana Новинка

Stable Isotope Studies of Groundwater in the Ga West Municipal, Ghana

Stable isotope and Hydro-geochemical methods have been used to characterize groundwater in the Ga West Municipal Area of Ghana. Residents in the municipality mostly depend on groundwater for their water needs. However, high salinity groundwater obtained in the area poses difficulties for current water supply as well as future exploitation. Schoeller and Piper plots have been used to characterize the groundwaters to determine the sources of salinity. The dominant groundwater composition in both shallow and deep wells sampled is Na-Cl, with concentration increasing substantially with well depths. The mixing process between freshwater and saline water was observed in the shift from CaHCO3 facies to Ca-Cl facies. Stable isotope composition of the groundwater suggests that groundwater recharge is of meteoric origin. An average deuterium excess of rainfall of 14.2‰ was observed, which indicates the significance of kinetic evaporation due to low humidity conditions prevalent in the study area. The d-excess also indicates modern recharge along the Akwapim-Togo Range of mountains.
GIS-Based Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment GIS-Based Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment Новинка

GIS-Based Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment

Effluents from industries and use of fertilizers and pesticides for agricultural developments are threats to groundwater quality. Remediation of contaminated groundwater is costly but groundwater protection is possible through enforcement of development policies based on scientific researches such as vulnerability assessment to contamination. This work focuses on Atebela groundwater catchment, Sebeta area. In recent years, groundwater quality has been deteriorating due to agricultural and industrial expansion which release potentially hazardous contaminants. The work applied DRASTIC model for the assessment of groundwater vulnerability to contamination in Atebela groundwater catchment. It employs a numerical ranking system that assigns relative weights to hydrogeological factors that control the fate of groundwater contaminants. The mapping process involved GIS as a tool for overlaying the various layers to produce vulnerability maps. They are useful to provide zoning for groundwater protection and are presented in a clear format for the use by policy and decision makers to develop appropriate legislative framework for the protection of the groundwater system.
Groundwater Treatment Groundwater Treatment Новинка

Groundwater Treatment

Groundwater is source for water supply because of its good natural quality. However, groundwater may be exposed toward to contamination by various anthropogenic activities such as agricultural, domestic and industrial. Groundwater quality problem are typically associated with high hardness, high salinity and elevated concentration of iron, manganese, ammonium, fluoride and occasionally nitrate and arsenic. Therefore, groundwater should be treated to acceptable level before consumption. This study is carried out with the objectives to optimize the feasibility condition of contact time, biosorbent dosage and pH range in removing heavy metal by using Rosa Centifolia (R. Centifolia) and also to determine the water quality of groundwater sources. A dried Rosa Centifolia pretreated before being used as biosorbent. Experiment was done by varying contact time, biosorbent dosage and pH range to get the optimum value. The finding indicated that Rosa Centifolia is a promising biosorbent in treating groundwater .
Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Chakdaha - Role of Mica Minerals Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Chakdaha - Role of Mica Minerals Новинка

Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Chakdaha - Role of Mica Minerals

High arsenic (As) groundwater poses the greatest threat to human health for the population drinking groundwater from Holocene alluvial aquifer in the Bengal Delta Plain (BDP, Bangladesh and West Bengal, India), causes increasing global concern in recent years. The first part of this study focuses on world scenario of As contamination, the factors controlling sorption and release of As in groundwater, its sources, mechanisms of As mobilization in BDP and geochemical transport modeling. The application of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as a surface sensitive technique to investigate oxido-reduction reaction at mica-water interface is discussed in the second part.
Groundwater Vulnerability Groundwater Vulnerability Новинка

Groundwater Vulnerability

Since the groundwater is found mostly contaminated by nitrate by previous researches, the study of intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater should be generated in order to delineate groundwater protection zone in these areas. This study has been conducted with two main objectives. First, is to determine the intrinsic vulnerability index of groundwater using two different methods, namely DRASTIC method (Aller et al., 1987) and Hoelting method (Hoelting et al., 1995). Second, is to evaluate the suitability of the method for the study area using nitrate which is believed to be a conservative ion in groundwater. Therefore, all important parameters have to be collected both from previous research and field data investigation such as geology, hydrogeology, hydrology, and water sample from well then proceed and analysed to build the intrinsic vulnerability map and the evaluation.
Mathematical Modelling and Simulation on Groundwater Flow Mathematical Modelling and Simulation on Groundwater Flow Новинка

Mathematical Modelling and Simulation on Groundwater Flow

The contents and description in this book include the use and application of Mathematical and Statistical Modeling. The basic principles of flow (Darcy's Law and Mass Balance Equation) are used in describing basic flow of groundwater. It has been also shown that, how mathematical methods (FEM) integrated with newly advanced computer software tools (GMSH and FEniCS) are used for simulation of groundwater flow study. The mathematical methods (FEM) are used in analyzing real problems (Characteristics’ of hydraulic head in groundwater flow) with the help of computer aided programs. Simulation tool is finally developed and tested in different conditions for a specific water site system.
Treatment of Landfill Leachate Treatment of Landfill Leachate Новинка

Treatment of Landfill Leachate

Solid waste and water pollution due to the generation of landfill leachate are among one of the most serious environmental problems worldwide. Not many scientific books at university level addressing the two major environmental issues have been published. The monograph describes and presents a state-of-the-art review of landfill leachate treatment based on the literature survey of 525 articles on landfill leachate treatment published in the period of 1963-2011. In addition, this book examines and compares the technical applicability of individual physico-chemical treatments such as chemical precipitation, adsorption and membrane filtration in removing NH3-N and/or recalcitrant substances from landfill leachate. The extent of organic removal from the leachate is indicated by a reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand) concentration after treatment. It goes without saying that the book will address the need of our societies, university students and policy makers on scientific/ engineering approaches to deal with global water pollution problems partly due to the generation of landfill leachate.
Pattern of Groundwater Levels by Statistical Method: An Investigation Pattern of Groundwater Levels by Statistical Method: An Investigation Новинка

Pattern of Groundwater Levels by Statistical Method: An Investigation

Knowledge of spatial and temporal patterns of groundwater levels is useful to evaluate efficacy of existing groundwater monitoring network. This book demonstrates application of graphical and multivariate statistical techniques to evaluate monitoring network of 50 sites in hard-rock aquifers of Ahar River catchment of Udaipur, Rajasthan. The graphical analysis included plotting of time plots and box-whisker plots for monthly groundwater levels for three years. Multivariate statistical technique includes principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA).
Appropriate Technique for Landfill Leachate Treatment Appropriate Technique for Landfill Leachate Treatment Новинка

Appropriate Technique for Landfill Leachate Treatment

The composition of landfill leachate is complex due to the conditions within a landfill and treatment methods must be based on the actual characteristics of the leachate. This book, therefore, investigates various operating conditions for minimizing required Fenton reagents and sludge disposal and maximizing chemical oxygen demand as well as colour removal from the leachate. A number of combined treatment processes are also developed in order to maximize the removal of organic compounds through the most appropriate one. Samples were collected from Matuail landfill site, one of the major landfill sites of Dhaka City Corporation. Conventional extended aeration process which is widely practiced for the present leachate treatment system of Matuail landfill site, has not achieved the satisfactory level of organic content removal due to a great extent of non-biodegradable organic compounds contained in landfill leachate. This research has suggested that not only biological aeration is enough to treat Matuail landfill leachate to the desired level but also further chemical treatment with Fenton reagent gives satisfactory results for treating the heavily polluted leachate.
Isotopic and Biogeochemical Legacy of Groundwater Isotopic and Biogeochemical Legacy of Groundwater Новинка

Isotopic and Biogeochemical Legacy of Groundwater

Groundwater environmental capacity and its evaluation index is the best approach to measure the impact of exploitation of groundwater resources and, pollution. The chemical and isotope tracers are essential tools for better understanding of groundwater origin, for quantifying water-rock interaction, mixing process and recharge rates, as well as for providing timescales of groundwater flow in groundwater systems, on large spatial and temporal scales. Measurements of isotopic composition of groundwater samples characterised by diversified signatures like seasonal variation, evaporation, water rock interaction or stratification with topography etc. In Southern India with dual monsoon influence, minor modification of the isotopic signal is expected during groundwater recharge. The present study covers a spectrum of subject components related to the ground water scenario of Bangalore city as influenced by the sewage network. The isotopic tool a sophisticated technique that can be used to confirm the changes taking place in the hydrological system.
Pattern Of Groundwater Levels By Statistical Method; An Investigation Pattern Of Groundwater Levels By Statistical Method; An Investigation Новинка

Pattern Of Groundwater Levels By Statistical Method; An Investigation

Knowledge of spatial and temporal patterns of groundwater levels is useful to evaluate efficacy of existing groundwater monitoring network. This book demonstrates application of graphical and multivariate statistical techniques to evaluate monitoring network of 50 sites in hard-rock aquifers of Ahar River catchment of Udaipur, Rajasthan. The graphical analysis included plotting of time plots and box-whisker plots for monthly groundwater levels for three years. Multivariate statistical technique includes principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA).
Hiscock Kevin M. Hydrogeology. Principles and Practice Hiscock Kevin M. Hydrogeology. Principles and Practice Новинка

Hiscock Kevin M. Hydrogeology. Principles and Practice

Hydrogeology: Principles and Practice provides a comprehensive introduction to the study of hydrogeology to enable the reader to appreciate the significance of groundwater in meeting current and future water resource challenges. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect advances in the field since 2004. The book presents a systematic approach to understanding groundwater. Earlier chapters explain the fundamental physical and chemical principles of hydrogeology, and later chapters feature groundwater investigation techniques in the context of catchment processes, as well as chapters on groundwater quality and contaminant hydrogeology. Unique features of the book are chapters on the applications of environmental isotopes and noble gases in the interpretation of aquifer evolution, and on regional characteristics such as topography, compaction and variable fluid density in the explanation of geological processes affecting past, present and future groundwater flow regimes. The last chapter discusses groundwater resources and environmental management, and examines the role of groundwater in integrated river basin management, including an assessment of possible adaptation responses to the impacts of climate change. Throughout the text, boxes and a set of colour plates drawn from the authors’ teaching and research experience are used to explain special topics and to illustrate international case studies ranging from transboundary aquifers and submarine groundwater discharge to the over-pressuring of groundwater in sedimentary basins. The appendices provide conversion tables and useful reference material, and include review questions and exercises, with answers, to help develop the reader’s knowledge and problem-solving skills in hydrogeology. This accessible textbook is essential reading for undergraduate and graduate students primarily in earth sciences, environmental sciences and physical geography with an interest in hydrogeology or groundwater science. The book will also find use among practitioners in hydrogeology, soil science, civil engineering and planning who are involved in environmental and resource protection issues requiring an understanding of groundwater. Additional resources can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/hiscock/hydrogeology
Evolution of Groundwater Quality and Contaminants Transport Modeling Evolution of Groundwater Quality and Contaminants Transport Modeling Новинка

Evolution of Groundwater Quality and Contaminants Transport Modeling

Hydrogeological evolution and three-dimensional numerical modeling were investigated in an urban area of Beijing. The main conclusion illustrate that hydrogeochemical modeling, geological statistics and spatial analysis on GIS can be applied to jude and measure the anthropogenic influence on the chemical composition of groundwater, as was assessment of stable isotope ratios approach in combination with chemical and hydrogeological data revealed that wastewater is the prevailing source of nitrogen. Moreover investigations using laboratory columns and field observations revealed that clay controls the concentration of cations, silica, and chloride ions in groundwater, indicating that clay layer is an important factor involved in control of groundwater quality. Then MODFLOW model was able to represent the negative impacts caused by excessive extraction of groundwater. PHT3D model was also able to quantify the influence of various land use functions on groundwater quality and deduce geochemical processes occurring in the aquifers. Finally, a novel conceptual model for an urban area that can be used in the future to evaluate site remediation scenarios was developed as part of this work.
Optimal Groundwater Monitoring Network Design Optimal Groundwater Monitoring Network Design Новинка

Optimal Groundwater Monitoring Network Design

Design of groundwater monitoring networks (GMN) of an aquifer has been one of the key concerns of researchers who deal with the management of groundwater contamination. To control, prevent, and remediation groundwater contamination, large number of monitoring well locations is required in a 3-D transient system. A state of the art groundwater monitoring network design, which combines groundwater flow and transport results with a Genetic Algorithm optimization procedure to identify optimal monitoring well location in 3-D, is presented in this book. The design approach differs from other (GMN)designs by placing the emphasis on maximizing the probability of tracking a transient contamination plume by determining sequential monitoring locations. It also addresses the issue of enhancing modelling accuracy when the hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data such as contaminant concentration measurement data are sparse. The groundwater contamination simulation results are introduced as input to the optimization model (Genetic Algorithm) to identify the groundwater optimal monitoring network design, based on several candidate monitoring locations.
Groundwater Modelling Groundwater Modelling Новинка

Groundwater Modelling

Groundwater is being exploited indiscriminately to meet our ever increasing demand of water in different parts of the world. In India, the Gangetic plane is amongst the most fertile land of the country. Over the past couple of decades, intensive growth in agriculture, industries, and human population have increased the water demand substantially. As a result severe problems of groundwater table declination have taken place causing threat to future availability of water. Keeping these in view, a study was undertaken in the Ramganga-Bahgul interbasin of Uttar Pradesh, India, to investigate the groundwater behaviour, analyse the causes behind water table declination, and estimate the stages of groundwater development. The collected field data were used to develop groundwater models using multiple regression and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches for the prediction of seasonal water table depths below ground level in the study area. The performance of both multiple regression and ANN models were compared and evaluated.
Removal of heavy metals and ground water pollution in Delhi, India Removal of heavy metals and ground water pollution in Delhi, India Новинка

Removal of heavy metals and ground water pollution in Delhi, India

Beneath air, water is the most important substance for the life of all organisms including human beings. Water has unique chemical properties due to its polarity and hydrogen bonds which means it is able to dissolve, absorb, adsorb or suspend many different compounds. Thus in nature water is not pure as it acquires contaminants from its surrounding and those arising from humans and animals as well as other biological activities. Groundwater is a significant water resource in India for domestic, irrigation and industrial needs. More than 85 % of rural and 50 % of urban domestic water requirements is being met from groundwater resources, while irrigation accounts for around 92% of groundwater extraction. Hasty, unscientific and unsustainable groundwater development and management in the country due to ever increasing population, urbanization and industrialization is altering the hydrological and geochemical environments of the aquifers leading to deterioration of groundwater quality. The quality of the groundwater sources are affected by the characteristics of the media through which the water passes on its way to the groundwater zone of saturation.
Impact of Climate change on Groundwater Recharge in Bhadar basin Impact of Climate change on Groundwater Recharge in Bhadar basin Новинка

Impact of Climate change on Groundwater Recharge in Bhadar basin

The groundwater recharge estimated by different methods like water balance, Krishna Rao(1970) and water table fluctuation were compared. The groundwater recharge depth for the entire basin was obtained by area weightage method. The trend analysis for all the time series was carried out by Mann-Kendall, Sen’s slope and best fit trend line method.The climate change impacts on rainfall favors to increase the rainfall significantly in 3 out of 9 watersheds while the runoff is found increasing in 3 out of 9 watersheds of the basin. The runoff in Bhadar basin is found increasing at the rate 8.1 mm per decade respectively. The groundwater recharge estimated by water balance method was found higher as compared to Krishna Rao (1970) and water table fluctuation method. The groundwater recharge estimated by water balance, Krishna Rao (1970) and water table fluctuation methods is found increasing in 3, 3 and 6 watersheds out of 9 watersheds of the basin. The groundwater recharge in the basin during monsoon is found increasing at the rate of 4.4 mm per decade in water table fluctuation methods due to climate change impacts.
Directional Antennas in Static Wireless Mesh Networks Directional Antennas in Static Wireless Mesh Networks Новинка

Directional Antennas in Static Wireless Mesh Networks

Previous research done in wireless mesh networks, typically assumes omni-directional antennas are used, which has the implication of when two nodes are communicating, all nodes in the vicinity must stay silent. With the use of directional antennas, two nodes can communicate without affecting communications of other nodes in the vicinity. One of the primary objectives of this book is to exploit these opportunities that directional antennas can provide, and translate that into improvements of the performance of the mesh network.
Groundwater, Land use, and Water Quality Groundwater, Land use, and Water Quality Новинка

Groundwater, Land use, and Water Quality

Groundwater, in general, is a high-value resource and especially important as a source of drinking water for many people. Groundwater has been known to be less polluted, but recent climate and land use changes threaten Groundwater quality. This applied research book focuses on describing and analyzing relationship between land use, hydrology, and geochemistry in a rural landscape in the Netherlands. There are three themes in the book. First, a Groundwater flow is simulated with a wide range of spatial data and software applications such as MODFLOW, PCRaster, Gstat, Python, and R. Factor Analysis was also performed in Python and R languages for the extraction of the major factors that influence Groundwater quality. Finally, the relationship between Groundwater flow and water quality was highlighted. This book is ideal for students, researchers, and policy makers who are looking for approaches in analyzing the nexus between Groundwater flow, Land use, and Groundwater quality.

кешбака
Страницы:


Hydrogeology: Principles and Practice provides a comprehensive introduction to the study of hydrogeology to enable the reader to appreciate the significance of groundwater in meeting current and future water resource challenges. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect advances in the field since 2004. The book presents a systematic approach to understanding groundwater. Earlier chapters explain the fundamental physical and chemical principles of hydrogeology, and later chapters feature groundwater investigation techniques in the context of catchment processes, as well as chapters on groundwater quality and contaminant hydrogeology. Unique features of the book are chapters on the applications of environmental isotopes and noble gases in the interpretation of aquifer evolution, and on regional characteristics such as topography, compaction and variable fluid density in the explanation of geological processes affecting past, present and future groundwater flow regimes. The last chapter discusses groundwater resources and environmental management, and examines the role of groundwater in integrated river basin management, including an assessment of possible adaptation responses to the impacts of climate change. Throughout the text, boxes and a set of colour plates drawn from the authors’ teaching and research experience are used to explain special topics and to illustrate international case studies ranging from transboundary aquifers and submarine groundwater discharge to the over-pressuring of groundwater in sedimentary basins. The appendices provide conversion tables and useful reference material, and include review questions and exercises, with answers, to help develop the reader’s knowledge and problem-solving skills in hydrogeology. This accessible textbook is essential reading for undergraduate and graduate students primarily in earth sciences, environmental sciences and physical geography with an interest in hydrogeology or groundwater science. The book will also find use among practitioners in hydrogeology, soil science, civil engineering and planning who are involved in environmental and resource protection issues requiring an understanding of groundwater. Additional resources can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/hiscock/hydrogeology
Продажа groundwater in vicinity of landfill лучших цены всего мира
Посредством этого сайта магазина - каталога товаров мы очень легко осуществляем продажу groundwater in vicinity of landfill у одного из интернет-магазинов проверенных фирм. Определитесь с вашими предпочтениями один интернет-магазин, с лучшей ценой продукта. Прочитав рекомендации по продаже groundwater in vicinity of landfill легко охарактеризовать производителя как превосходную и доступную фирму.